Evaluation of FoodMASTER Initiative (FMI) materials, processes, and outcomes can be found in 19 peer-reviewed publications. 

The program began in elementary grades, so the majority research is on the initial programming in grades 3-5. Expansion of the program lead to the creation of a middle school curriculum and subsequent research. At the same time, higher education materials were being developed and tested as a result of college students being trained to help implement the K-12 programming. 

The FMI researched the college student experiences to demonstrate the idea of the importance of mentorship programs for college students. As a result, there were a couple of small-scale pilot preschool projects within the scope of the FMI because of college student interest in this age group.  The preschool projects in the reference list were graduate and undergraduate student-driven activities.

Each of these projects underwent rigorous evaluation through robust evaluation and research design. Smaller-scale pilot or proof of concept projects involve curriculum development, small-scale teacher and student testing, interviews, and observation. Larger-scale projects maintained well-matched comparison groups, pre and post testing, and post interviewing and surveys. All research projects involved the management of multidisciplinary research teams, advisory experts, and the mentorship and teaching of graduate and undergraduate students.

Early Childhood

Geist, E.A., Duffrin, M., & Overholt, S.A. (2011).  Eating up Mathematics! Teaching Children Mathematics. 17(9):568.

Roseno, A., Carraway-Stage, V., Geist, G., & Duffrin, M. (2015). Exploring Sunflower Seeds: A Thematic Approach to Science Inquiry for Young Children. Young Children. 70(3):88-91.

Grade 3-5

Diaz, S., Roseno, A., Stage, V., Moore, S., Lynch, A., Dickerson, D, Duffrin, M. (2018). The Importance of Improving Youths’ Attitudes Toward Science (ATS): Validation of a Short Form Assessment of Attitudes in Science Constructs for Fourth Grade (AASC-4). Journal of STEM Outreach.

Duffrin, M., Cuson, D., Phillips, S.K., &Graham, A.S. (2005).  Developing Food Products and Enthusiastic Learners. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 37(1):41-42.

Duffrin, M., Cuson, D., &Phillips, S.K. (2005).  Using Foods to Boost Math and Science Skills. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 97(1):64-65.

Duffrin, M., Hovland, J., Carraway-Stage, V., McLeod, S., Duffrin, C., Phillips, S., Rivera, D., Saum, D., Johanson, G., Graham, A., Lee, T., Bosse, M., & Berryman, D. (2010). Using Food as a Tool to Teach Science to 3rd Grade Students in Appalachian Ohio. Journal of Food Science Education, 9(2):41-46.

Hovland, J., Carraway-Stage, V., Cela, A., Collins, C., Diaz, S., Collins, A., & Duffrin, M. (2013).  Food-Based Science Curriculum Increases 4th Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge. Journal of Food Science Education, 12(4):81-86.

Hovland, J., McLeod, S., Duffrin, M., Johanson, G., & Berryman, D. (2010).  School-based Dietary Intake Screening of 3rdGraders in Rural Appalachia Ohio. Journal of School Health, 80(11):536-543.

McLeod, S., Carraway-Stage, V., Hovland, J., & Duffrin, M. (2012). Measuring Me: Using Nutrition Education Curriculum Activities to Teach Elementary Mathematics. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 44(2):189-191.

Phillips, S.K., Duffrin, M., & Geist, E.A. (2004). Be a Food Scientist. Science and Children, 41(4):24-29.

Roseno, A., Carraway-Stage, V., Hoerdemann, C., Diaz, S., Geist E., & Duffrin, M. (2014). Applying Mathematical Concepts with Hands-on, Food-Based Science Curriculum. School Science & Mathematics, 115(1):14-21.

Stage, V., Diaz, S., Hovland, J.A., Kolasa, K., Duffrin, M.W. (2017) Exploring Associations among Nutrition Science, and Mathematics Domains of Knowledge for an Integrative Food-based Curriculum: A Multiple Regression Analysis.Journal of School Health, 88(1), 15-2.

Stage, V., Hovland, J., Ochab, C., Diaz, S., & Duffrin, M. (2015). Food-based Science Curriculum Yields Gains in Nutrition Knowledge. Journal of School Health. 85(4):231-240.

Stage, V., Roseno, A., Hodges, C., Hovland, J., Diaz, S., & Duffrin, M.W. (2016). Implementation of a Food-based Science Curriculum Improves 4th Grade Educator’s Self-efficacy for Teaching Nutrition. American Journal of Health Education. Journal of Health Education, 47 (3), 155-162.

Grades 6-8

Hodges, C., Roseno, A, Duffrin, M.W., & Stage, V. (2017). Middle school nutrition knowledge tool development in North Carolina. Nutrition and Food Science, 47(3), 332-345. 

Roseno, A., Duffrin, M.W., & Stage, V. (2017). Process Evaluation of an Integrative, Food-based Science Curriculum in 8thGrade North Carolina Science Classrooms. Health Behavior and Policy Review, 4(5), 491-502.

Higher Education

Duffrin, M. (2003).  Integrating Problem-based Learning in an Introductory College Food Science Course Journal of Food Science Education, 2(1):2-6.

Rivera, D., Duffrin, M., & Phillips, S. (2009).  Improving Elementary School Students’ Learning Outcomes Using

Food-based Mentorship Programs. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 9(3-4):144-158.

Willard, K., & Duffrin, M. (2003).  Utilizing Project-based Learning and Competition to Develop Student Skills And Interest in Producing Quality Food Items.  Journal of Food Science Education, 2(4):69-73.